Significant accounting policies

Authorization of Consolidated financial statements and compliance with International Financial Reporting Standards

These Consolidated financial statements, together with notes thereto of FCA, at December 31, 2014 were authorized for issuance on March 5, 2015 and have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards as adopted by the European Union (EU-IFRS) and with Part 9 of Book 2 of the Dutch Civil Code. The Consolidated financial statements are also prepared in accordance with the IFRS adopted by the European Union. The designation “IFRS” also includes International Accounting Standards (“IAS”) as well as all interpretations of the IFRS Interpretations Committee (“IFRIC”).

Basis of Preparation

The Consolidated financial statements are prepared under the historical cost method, modified as required for themmeasurement of certain financial instruments, as well as on a going concern basis. In this respect, the Group’smassessment is that no material uncertainties (as defined in paragraph 25 of IAS 1- Presentation of Financial Statements) exist about its ability to continue as a going concern.

The Group’s presentation currency is Euro (€).

Format of the Consolidated Financial Statements

For presentation of the Consolidated income statement, the Group uses a classification based on the function of expenses, rather than based on their nature, as it is more representative of the format used for internal reporting and management purposes and is consistent with international practice in the automotive sector. The Group also presents a subtotal for Earnings before Interest and Taxes (“EBIT”). EBIT distinguishes between the Profit before taxes arising from operating items and those arising from financing activities. EBIT is the primary measure used by the Chief Operating Decision Maker (identified as the Chief Executive Officer) to assess the performance of and allocate resources to the operating segments.

For the Consolidated statement of financial position, a mixed format has been selected to present current and noncurrent assets and liabilities, as permitted by IAS 1 paragraph 60. More specifically, the Group’s Consolidated financial statements include both industrial and financial services companies. The investment portfolios of the financial services companies are included in current assets, as the investments will be realized in their normal operating cycle. However, the financial services companies obtain only a portion of their funding from the market; the remainder is obtained from Group operating companies through the Group’s treasury companies (included within the industrial companies), which provide funding to both industrial and financial services companies in the Group, as the need arises. This financial services structure within the Group does not allow the separation of financial liabilities funding the financial services operations (whose assets are reported within current assets) and those funding the industrial operations. Presentation of financial liabilities as current or non-current based on their date of maturity would not facilitate a meaningful comparison with financial assets, which are categorized on the basis of their normal operating cycle. Disclosure as to the due date of the financial liabilities is provided in Note 27.

The Consolidated statement of cash flows is presented using the indirect method.

Reclassifications

Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current year presentation.

New standards and amendments effective from January 1, 2014

The following new standards and amendments that are applicable from January 1, 2014 were adopted by the Group for the purpose of the preparation of the Consolidated financial statements.

IFRS 11 - Joint arrangements

The Group adopted IFRS 11, as amended as of January 1, 2014. The adoption of this standard required the reclassification of investments previously classified as jointly controlled entities under IAS 31 - Interests in joint ventures, as either “joint operations” (if the Group has rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to an arrangement) or “joint ventures” (if the Group has rights only to the net assets of an arrangement). The classification focuses on the rights and obligations of the arrangements, as well as their legal form. Under the new standard, joint ventures are accounted for under the equity method while joint operations are accounted for by recognizing the Group’s share of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses (these interests would have previously been accounted for using the equity method under IAS 31).

As a result of the IFRS 11 retrospective application, the Group’s interest in Sevel S.p.A., a joint arrangement with PSA-Peugeot and the Group’s interests in Fiat India Automobiles Limited, a joint arrangement with Tata Motor, were classified as joint operations. Therefore, the Group recognized its share of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses instead of recognizing its interest in the net assets of the entities under the equity method. The Group’s interests in joint arrangements which were classified as jointly controlled entities under IAS 31 and have been reclassified as Joint ventures under IFRS 11 continue to be accounted for using the equity method. The reclassification of these interests had no impact on these Interim Consolidated Financial Statements.

The impacts of the adoption of IFRS 11 on comparative amounts are set out below:

For the Year Ended December 31, 2013For the Year Ended December 31, 2012
Amounts as originally reportedIFRS 11Amounts as adjustedAmounts as originally reportedIFRS 11Amounts as adjusted
(€ million)
Items of Consolidated income statement impacted by IFRS 11
Net revenues 86,816 (192) 86,624 83,957 (192) 83,765
Cost of sales 74,570 (244) 74,326 71,701 (228) 71,473
Selling, general and administrative costs 6,689 13 6,702 6,763 12 6,775
Research and development costs 2,231 5 2,236 1,850 8 1,858
Other income/(expenses) 68 9 77 (102) 34 (68)
Result from investments 97 (13) 84 107 (20) 87
EBIT 2,972 30 3,002 3,404 30 3,434
Net financial income/(expenses) (1,964) (23) (1,987) (1,885) (25) (1,910)
Tax (income)/expenses (943) 7 (936) 623 5 628
Net profit 1,951 1,951 896 896
Net profit attributable to
Owners of the parent 904 904 44 44
Non-controlling interests 1,047 1,047 852 852
Basic and diluted earnings per share
Basic earnings per ordinary share 0.744 0.744 0.036 0.036
Diluted earnings per ordinary share 0.736 0.736 0.036 0.036

For the Year Ended December 31, 2013For the Year Ended December 31, 2012
Amounts as originally reportedIFRS 11Amounts as adjustedAmounts as originally reportedIFRS 11Amounts as adjusted
(€ million)
Items of Consolidated statement of comprehensive income/(loss) impacted by IFRS 11
Net profit 1,951 1,951 896 896
Gains/(losses) on remeasurement of defined benefit plans, net of tax 2,678 (2) 2,676 (1,839) (1,839)
Share of gains/(losses) on remeasurement of defined benefit plans for equity method investees (9) 2 (7)
Exchange differences on translating foreign operations (708) (12) (720) (270) (15) (285)
Share of Other comprehensive income/(loss) for equity method investees (100) 12 (88) 21 15 36

At December 31, 2013At December 31, 2012At January 1, 2012
Amounts as originally reportedIFRS 11Amounts as adjustedAmounts as originally reportedIFRS 11Amounts as adjustedAmounts as originally reportedIFRS 11Amounts as adjusted
(€ million)
Items of Consolidated statement of financial position impacted by IFRS 11
Assets
Intangible assets 19,509 5 19,514 19,284 10 19,294 18,200 18,200
Property, plant and equipment 22,844 389 23,233 22,062 434 22,496 20,830 295 21,125
Investments and other financial assets 2,260 (208) 2,052 2,287 (168) 2,119 2,663 (97) 2,566
Deferred tax assets 2,893 10 2,903 1,738 9 1,747 1,689 10 1,699
Total Non-current assets 47,611 196 47,807 45,464 285 45,749 43,487 208 43,695
Inventories 10,230 48 10,278 9,295 64 9,359 9,123 43 9,166
Trade receivables 2,406 138 2,544 2,702 114 2,816 2,625 89 2,714
Receivables from financing activities 3,727 (7) 3,720 3,968 (15) 3,953
Current tax receivables 291 21 312 236 30 266 369 369
Other current assets 2,302 21 2,323 2,163 32 2,195 2,088 13 2,101
Cash and cash equivalents 19,439 16 19,455 17,657 9 17,666 17,526 17,526
Total Current assets 39,154 244 39,398 36,587 242 36,829 36,488 130 36,618
Total Assets 86,774 440 87,214 82,106 527 82,633 80,041 338 80,379
Equity and liabilities
Equity 12,584 12,584 8,369 8,369 9,711 9,711
Of which
Other reserves 3,935 3,935 3,930 3,930
Currency translation differences 633 (15) 618 834 834
Remeasurement of defined benefit plans (2,534) (7) (2,541) (1,287) (4) (1,291)
Cumulative share of OCI of equity method investees 18 22 40 (83) 4 (79)
Non-controlling interest 2,182 2,182 2,353 2,353
Provisions 17,360 67 17,427 20,276 52 20,328 18,182 60 18,242
Employee benefits 8,265 61 8,326 11,486 60 11,546 9,584 56 9,640
Other provisions 9,095 6 9,101 8,790 (8) 8,782 8,598 4 8,602
Deferred tax liabilities 801 801 761 1 762
Debt 29,902 381 30,283 27,889 414 28,303 26,772 321 27,093
Other current liabilities 8,943 20 8,963 7,781 30 7,811 7,538 21 7,559
Trade payables 17,235 (28) 17,207 16,558 31 16,589 16,418 (65) 16,353
Total Equity and liabilities 86,774 440 87,214 82,106 527 82,633 80,041 338 80,379

For the Year Ended December 31, 2013For the Year Ended December 31, 2012
Amounts as originally reportedIFRS 11Amounts as adjustedAmounts as originally reportedIFRS 11Amounts as adjusted
(€ million)
Effects on Consolidated statement of cash flows
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of the period 17,657 9 17,666 17,526 17,526
Cash flows from/(used in) operating activities 7,589 29 7,618 6,444 48 6,492
Of which
Profit/(loss) for the period 896 896
Other non-cash items 562 20 582
Cash flows from/(used in) investing activities (8,086) 32 (8,054) (7,537) (5) (7,542)
Cash flows from/(used in) financing activities 3,188 (52) 3,136 1,643 (33) 1,610
Translation exchange differences (909) (2) (911) (419) (1) (420)
Total change in cash and cash equivalents 1,782 7 1,789 131 9 140
Cash and cash equivalents at end of the period 19,439 16 19,455 17,657 9 17,666

IFRS 10 - Consolidated Financial Statements

The Group adopted IFRS 10, as amended, effective January 1, 2014. The new standard builds on existing principles by identifying a single control model applicable to all entities, including “structured entities”. The standard also provides additional guidance to assist in the determination of control where this is difficult to assess.

In accordance with the transition provision in IFRS 10, the Group reassessed the conclusion on control of its investees on January 1, 2014 without reporting any significant effect on the adoption of the new standard.

IFRS 12 - Disclosure of Interests in Other Entities

The Group adopted IFRS 12, as amended, effective January 1, 2014. The standard is a new and comprehensive standard on disclosure requirements for all forms of interests in other entities, including subsidiaries, joint arrangements, associates, structured entities and other unconsolidated entities. Other than the modifications to the disclosures regarding these interests reported in these Consolidated financial statements, the adoption of the new standard did not have any effect on these Consolidated financial statements.

Offsetting Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities (Amendments to IAS 32 – Financial Instruments: Presentation)

The Group adopted the amendments to IAS 32 – Financial Instruments: Presentation effective January 1, 2014. The amendments clarify the application of certain offsetting criteria for financial assets and financial liabilities and are required to be applied retrospectively. There was no significant effect on the Consolidated financial statements from the application of these amendments.

Recoverable Amount Disclosures for Non-Financial Assets (Amendments to IAS 36 – Impairment of assets)

The Group adopted the amendments to IAS 36 – Recoverable Amount Disclosures for Non-Financial Assets on January 1,2014 which addresses the disclosure of information about the recoverable amount of impaired assets if the recoverable amount is based on fair value less cost of disposal. There was no effect on the Consolidated financial statements from the adoption of these amendments. The application of these amendments will result in expanded disclosure in the notes to future consolidated financial statements when there is an impairment that is based on fair value less cost of disposal.

Novation of Derivatives and Continuation of Hedge Accounting (Amendments to IAS 39 – Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement)

These amendments, which were adopted from January 1, 2014, allow hedge accounting to continue in a situation where a derivative, which has been designated as a hedging instrument, is novated to effect clearing with a central counterparty as a result of laws or regulation, if specific conditions are met. There was no significant effect on the Consolidated financial statements from the application of these amendments.

Accounting for an obligation to pay a levy that is not income tax (IFRIC Interpretation 21 – Levies an interpretation of IAS 37 – Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets)

The interpretation, effective from January 1, 2014, sets out the accounting for an obligation to pay a levy that is not income tax. The interpretation addresses what the obligating event is that gives rise to pay a levy and when a liability should be recognized. There was no significant effect on the Consolidated financial statements from the application of this interpretation.

New standards, amendments and interpretations not yet effective

  • In November 2013, the IASB published narrow scope amendments to IAS 19 – Employee benefits entitled “Defined Benefit Plans: Employee Contributions”. These amendments apply to contributions from employees or third parties to defined benefit plans in order to simplify their accounting in specific cases. The amendments are effective, retrospectively, for annual periods beginning on or after July 1, 2014 with earlier application permitted. No significant effect is expected from the first time adoption of these amendments.
  • In December 2013, the IASB issued Annual Improvements to IFRSs 2010 – 2012 Cycle and Annual Improvements to IFRSs 2011–2013 Cycle. The most important topics addressed in these amendments are, among others, the definition of vesting conditions in IFRS 2 – Share-based payments, the disclosure on judgment used in the aggregation of operating segments in IFRS 8 – Operating Segments, the identification and disclosure of a related party transaction that arises when a management entity provides key management personnel service to a reporting entity in IAS 24 – Related Party disclosures, the extension of the exclusion from the scope of IFRS 3 – Business Combinations to all types of joint arrangements and to clarify the application of certain exceptions in IFRS 13 – Fair value Measurement. The improvements are effective for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2015. No significant effect is expected from the adoption of these amendments.
  • In May 2014, the IASB issued amendments to IFRS 11 – Joint arrangements: Accounting for acquisitions of interests in joint operations, clarifying the accounting for acquisitions of an interest in a joint operation that constitutes a business. The amendments are effective, retrospectively, for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2016 with earlier application permitted. No significant effect is expected from the adoption of these amendments. 
  • In May 2014, the IASB issued an amendment to IAS 16 – Property, Plant and Equipment and to IAS 38 – Intangible Assets. The IASB has clarified that the use of revenue-based methods to calculate the depreciation of an asset is not appropriate because revenue generated by an activity that includes the use of an asset generally reflects factors other than the consumption of the economic benefits embodied in the asset. The IASB also clarified that revenue is generally presumed to be an inappropriate basis for measuring the consumption of the economic benefits embodied in an intangible asset. This presumption, however, can be rebutted in certain limited circumstances. These amendments are effective for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2016, with early application permitted. The Group is currently evaluating the method of implementation and impact of this amendment on its Consolidated financial statements. 
  • In May 2014, the IASB issued IFRS 15 – Revenue from contracts with customers. The standard requires a company to recognize revenue upon transfer of control of goods or services to a customer at an amount that reflects the consideration it expects to receive. This new revenue recognition model defines a five step process to achieve this objective. The updated guidance also requires additional disclosures about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts. The standard is effective for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2017, and requires either a full or modified retrospective application. The Group is currently evaluating the method of implementation and impact of this standard on its Consolidated financial statements.
  • In July 2014 the IASB issued IFRS 9 – Financial Instruments. The improvements introduced by the new standard includes a logical approach for classification and measurement of financial instruments driven by cash flow characteristics and the business model in which an asset is held, a single “expected loss” impairment model for financial assets and a substantially reformed approach for hedge accounting. The standard is effective, retrospectively with limited exceptions, for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2018 with earlier application permitted. The Group is currently evaluating the impact of this standard on its Consolidated financial statements.
  • In September 2014, the IASB issued narrow amendments to IFRS 10 – Consolidated Financial Statements and IAS 28 – Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures (2011). The amendments address an acknowledged inconsistency between the requirements in IFRS 10 and those in IAS 28 (2011), in dealing with the sale or contribution of assets between an investor and its associate or joint venture. The main consequence of the amendments is that a full gain or loss is recognized when a transaction involves a business (whether it is housed in a subsidiary or not). A partial gain or loss is recognized when a transaction involves assets that do not constitute a business, even if these assets are housed in a subsidiary. The amendments will be effective, prospectively, for annual periods commencing on or after January 1, 2016.
  • In September 2014 the IASB issued the Annual Improvements to IFRSs 2012-2014 cycle, a series of amendments to IFRSs in response to issues raised mainly on IFRS 5 – Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations, on the changes of method of disposal, on IFRS 7 – Financial Instruments: Disclosures on the servicing contracts, on the IAS 19 – Employee Benefits, on the discount rate determination. The effective date of the amendments is January 1, 2016. The Group is currently evaluating the impact of these amendments on its Consolidated financial statements.
  • In December 2014 the IASB issued amendments to IAS 1- Presentation of Financial Statements as part of its major initiative to improve presentation and disclosure in financial reports. The amendments make clear that materiality applies to the whole of financial statements and that the inclusion of immaterial information can inhibit the usefulness of financial disclosures. Furthermore, the amendments clarify that companies should use professional judgment in determining where and in what order information is presented in the financial disclosures. The amendments are effective for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2016 with early application permitted.  

Basis of Consolidation

Subsidiaries

Subsidiaries are entities over which the Group has control. Control is achieved when the Group has power over the investee, when it is exposed to, or has rights to, variable returns from its involvement with the investee, and has the ability to use its power over the investee to affect the amount of the investor’s returns. Subsidiaries are consolidated on a line by line basis from the date on which control is achieved by the Group. The Group reassesses whether or not it controls an investee if facts and circumstances indicate that there are changes to one or more of the three elements of control listed above. 

The Group recognizes a non-controlling interest in the acquiree on a transaction-by-transaction basis, either at fair value or at the non-controlling interest’s share of the recognized amounts of the acquiree’s identifiable net assets. Net profit or loss and each component of Other comprehensive income/(loss) are attributed to Equity attributable to owners of the parent and to Non-controlling interest. Total comprehensive income /(loss) of subsidiaries is attributed to Equity attributable to the owners of the parent and to the non-controlling interest even if this results in a deficit balance in Non-controlling interest.

Changes in the Group’s ownership interests in a subsidiary that do not result in the Group losing control over the subsidiary are accounted for as an equity transaction. The carrying amounts of the Equity attributable to owners of the parent and Non-controlling interests are adjusted to reflect the changes in their relative interests in the subsidiary. Any difference between the carrying amount of the non-controlling interests and the fair value of the consideration paid or received in the transaction is recognized directly in the Equity attributable to the owners of the parent.  

Subsidiaries are deconsolidated from the date on which control ceases. When the Group ceases to have control over a subsidiary, it de-recognizes the assets (including any goodwill) and liabilities of the subsidiary at their carrying amounts at the date when control is lost, and de-recognizes the carrying amount of non-controlling interests in the former subsidiary at the same date and recognizes the fair value of any consideration received from the transaction. Any retained interest in the former subsidiary is remeasured to its fair value at the date when control is lost. This fair value is the initial carrying amount for the purposes of subsequent accounting for the retained interest as an associate, joint venture or financial asset. In addition, any amounts previously recognized in Other comprehensive income/(loss) in respect of that entity are accounted for as if the Group had directly disposed of the related assets or liabilities.

This may mean that amounts previously recognized in Other comprehensive income/(loss) are reclassified to the Consolidated income statement or transferred directly to retained earnings as required by other IFRS.

Interests in Joint Ventures and Associates

A joint venture is a joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the arrangement have rights to the net assets of the arrangement. Joint control involves the contractually agreed sharing of control of an arrangement, which exists only when decisions about the relevant activities require the unanimous consent of the parties sharing control. 

An associate is an entity over which the Group has significant influence. Significant influence is the power to participate in the financial and operating policy decisions of the investees but does not have control or joint control over those policies.

Joint ventures and associates are accounted for using the equity method of accounting from the date on which joint control and significant influence is obtained. On acquisition of the investment, any excess of the cost of the investment and the Group’s share of the net fair value of the investee’s identifiable assets and liabilities is recognized as goodwill and is included in the carrying amount of the investment. Any excess of the Group’s share of the net fair value of the investee’s identifiable assets and liabilities over the cost of the investment is included as income in the determination of the Group’s share of the investee’s profit or loss in the acquisition period.

Under the equity method, the investments are initially recognized at cost, and adjusted thereafter to recognize the Group’s share of the profit or loss and Other comprehensive income/(loss) of the investee. The Group’s share of the investee’s profit or loss is recognized in the Consolidated income statement. Distributions received from an investee reduce the carrying amount of the investment. Post-acquisition movements in Other comprehensive income/(loss) are recognized in Other comprehensive income/(loss) with a corresponding adjustment to the carrying amount of the investment. 

Unrealized gains on transactions between the Group and its joint ventures and associates are eliminated to the extent of the Group’s interest in the joint venture or associate. Unrealized losses are also eliminated unless the transaction provides evidence of an impairment of the asset transferred.

When the Group’s share of the losses of a joint venture or associate exceeds the Group’s interest in that joint venture or associate, the Group discontinues recognizing its share of further losses. Additional losses are provided for, and a liability is recognized, only to the extent that the Group has incurred legal or constructive obligations or made payments on behalf of the joint venture or associate.

The Group discontinues the use of the equity method from the date when the investment ceases to be an associate or a joint venture or when it is classified as available-for-sale.

Interests in Joint Operations

A joint operation is a joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the arrangement have rights to the assets and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement. Joint control is the contractually agreed sharing of control of an arrangement, which exists only when decisions about the relevant activities require the unanimous consent of the parties sharing control. 

When the Group undertakes its activities under joint operations, it recognizes in relation to its interest in the joint operation: (i) its assets, including its share of any assets held jointly, (ii) its liabilities, including its share of any liabilities incurred jointly, (iii) its revenue from the sale of its share of the output arising from the joint operation (iv) its share of the revenue from the sale of the output by the joint operation and (v) its expenses, including its share of any expenses incurred jointly.

Interests in other companies

Interests in other companies are measured at fair value. Investments in equity investments that do not have a quoted market price in an active market and whose fair value cannot be reliably measured are measured at cost. For investments classified as available-for-sale, financial assets gains or losses arising from changes in fair value are recognized in Other comprehensive income/(loss) until the assets are sold or are impaired; at that time, the cumulative Other comprehensive income/(loss) is recognized in the Consolidated income statement. Interests in other companies for which fair value is not available are stated at cost less any impairment losses.

Dividends received are included in Other income/(expenses) from investments.

Transactions eliminated in consolidation

All intra-group balances and transactions and any unrealized gains and losses arising from intra-group transactions are eliminated in preparing the Consolidated financial statements.

Unrealized gains and losses arising from transactions with associates and joint ventures are eliminated to the extent of the Group’s interest in those entities. Unrealized losses are also eliminated unless the transaction provides evidence of an impairment of the asset transferred.

Foreign currency transactions

The functional currency of the Group’s entities is the currency of their primary economic environment. In individual companies, transactions in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing at the date of the transaction. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies at the balance sheet date are translated at the exchange rate prevailing at that date. Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the period or in previous financial statements, are recognized in the Consolidated income statement.

Consolidation of foreign entities

All assets and liabilities of foreign consolidated companies with a functional currency other than the Euro are translated using the closing rates at the date of the Consolidated statement of financial position. Income and expenses are translated into Euro at the average exchange rate for the period. Translation differences resulting from the application of this method are classified as Other comprehensive income/(loss) until the disposal of the investment. Average exchange rates for the period are used to translate the cash flows of foreign subsidiaries in preparing the Consolidated statement of cash flows.

Goodwill, assets acquired and liabilities assumed arising from the acquisition of entities with a functional currency other than the Euro are recognized in the Consolidated financial statements in the functional currency and translated at the exchange rate at the acquisition date. These balances are translated at subsequent balance sheet dates at the relevant exchange rate.

The principal exchange rates used to translate other currencies into Euros were as follows:

   

201420132012
AverageAt December 31,AverageAt December 31,AverageAt December 31,
U.S. Dollar 1.329 1.214 1.328 1.379 1.285 1.319
Brazilian Real 3.121 3.221 2.867 3.258 2.508 2.704
Chinese Renminbi 8.187 7.536 8.164 8.349 8.106 8.221
Serbian Dinar 117.247 120.958 113.096 114.642 113.120 113.718
Polish Zloty 4.184 4.273 4.197 4.154 4.185 4.074
Argentine Peso 10.782 10.382 7.263 8.988 5.836 6.478
Pound Sterling 0.806 0.779 0.849 0.834 0.811 0.816
Swiss Franc 1.215 1.202 1.231 1.228 1.205 1.207

Business combinations

Business combinations are accounted for by applying the acquisition method of accounting in accordance with IFRS 3 - Business Combinations.

Under this method:

  • The consideration transferred in a business combination is measured at fair value, which is calculated as the sum of the acquisition-date fair values of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed by the Group and the equity interests issued by the Group in exchange for control of the acquiree. Acquisition-related costs are recognized in the Consolidated income statement as incurred. 
  • The identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed are recognized at their acquisition date fair values, except for deferred tax assets and liabilities, assets and liabilities relating to employee benefit arrangements, liabilities or equity instruments relating to share-based payment arrangements of the acquiree or share-based payment arrangements of the Group entered into to replace share-based payment arrangements of the acquiree and assets (or disposal groups) that are classified as held for sale, which are measured in accordance with the relevant IFRS standard.
  • Goodwill is measured as the excess of the aggregate of the consideration transferred, the amount of any non- controlling interest in the acquiree and the acquisition-date fair value of any previously held equity interest in the acquiree over the acquisition-date values of the identifiable net assets acquired. If the value of the identifiable net assets acquired exceeds the aggregate of the consideration transferred, any non-controlling interest recognized and the fair value of any previously held interest in the acquiree, the excess is recognized as a gain in the Consolidated income statement.
  • Non-controlling interest is initially measured either at fair value or at the non-controlling interest’s proportionate share of the acquiree’s identifiable net assets. The selection of the measurement method is made on a transaction- by-transaction basis.
  • Any contingent consideration arrangement in the business combination is initially measured at its acquisition-date fair value and included as part of the consideration transferred in the business combination in order to measure goodwill. Contingent consideration that is classified within Equity is not remeasured and its subsequent settlement is accounted for within Equity. Contingent consideration that is classified within Liabilities is remeasured at fair value at each reporting date with changes in fair value recorded in the Consolidated income statement.
  • During the measurement period, which may not exceed one year from the acquisition date, any adjustments to the value of assets or liabilities recognized at the acquisition date arising from additional information obtained about facts and circumstances that existed at the acquisition date are recognized retrospectively with corresponding adjustments to goodwill.

When a business combination is achieved in stages, the Group’s previously held equity interest in the acquiree is remeasured at its acquisition-date fair value and any resulting gain or loss is recognized in the Consolidated income statement. Changes in the equity interest in the acquiree that have been recognized in Other comprehensive income/(loss) in prior reporting periods are reclassified to the Consolidated income statement as if the equity interest had been disposed.  

Intangible assets

Goodwill

Goodwill is not amortized, but is tested for impairment annually or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that it might be impaired. After initial recognition, Goodwill is measured at cost less any accumulated impairment losses.

Development costs

Development costs for vehicle project production and related components, engines and production systems are recognized as an asset if, and only if, both of the following conditions under IAS 38 – Intangible assets are met: that development costs can be measured reliably and that the technical feasibility of the product, volumes and pricing support the view that the development expenditure will generate future economic benefits. Capitalized development costs include all direct and indirect costs that may be directly attributed to the development process.

Capitalized development costs are amortized on a straight-line basis from the start of production over the expected life cycle of the models (generally 5-6 years) or powertrains developed (generally 10-12 years). All other development costs are expensed as incurred.

Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives

Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives consist principally of brands which have no legal, contractual, competitive, economic, or other factors that limit their useful lives. Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are not amortized, but are tested for impairment annually or more frequently whenever there is an indication that the asset may be impaired, by comparing the carrying amount with the recoverable amount.

Property, plant and equipment

Cost

Property, plant and equipment is initially recognized at cost which comprises the purchase price, any costs directly attributable to bringing the assets to the location and condition necessary to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management and any initial estimate of the costs of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located. Self-constructed assets are initially recognized at production cost. Subsequent expenditures and the cost of replacing parts of an asset are capitalized only if they increase the future economic benefits embodied in that asset. All other expenditures are expensed as incurred. When such replacement costs are capitalized, the carrying amount of the parts that are replaced is recognized in the Consolidated income statement. 

Assets held under finance leases, which provide the Group with substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership, are recognized as assets of the Group at their fair value or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. The corresponding liability to the lessor is included in the Consolidated statement of position within Debt. The assets are depreciated by the method and at the rates indicated below depending on the nature of the leased assets. 

Leases under which the lessor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the leased assets are classified as operating leases. Operating lease expenditures are expensed on a straight-line basis over the lease terms.

Depreciation

Depreciation is calculated on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets during years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012, as follows:

 Depreciation rates
Buildings 3% - 8%
Plant, machinery and equipment 3% - 33%
Other assets 5% - 33%

Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of property, plant or equipment or an intangible asset that is deemed to be a qualifying asset as defined in IAS 23 - Borrowing Costs are capitalized. The amount of borrowing costs eligible for capitalization corresponds to the actual borrowing costs incurred during the period less any investment income on the temporary investment of any borrowed funds not yet used. The amount of borrowing costs capitalized as of December 31, 2014 and 2013 was €256 million and €230 million, respectively.

Impairment of assets

At the end of each reporting period, the Group assesses whether there is any indication that its Intangible assets (including development costs) and its Property, plant and equipment may be impaired. Goodwill and Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are tested for impairment annually or more frequently, if there is an indication that an asset may be impaired.

If indications of impairment are present, the carrying amount of the asset is reduced to its recoverable amount which is the higher of fair value less costs to sell and its value in use. The recoverable amount is determined for the individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets, in which case the asset is tested as part of the cash-generating unit (“CGU”) to which the asset belongs. A CGU is the smallest identifiable group of assets that generates cash inflows that are largely independent of the cash inflows from other assets or groups of assets. In assessing the value in use of an asset or CGU, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset or CGU. An impairment loss is recognized if the recoverable amount is lower than the carrying amount. Impairment of Property plant and equipment and Intangible assets arising from transactions that are only incidentally related to the ordinary activities of the Group and that are not expected to occur frequently, are considered to hinder comparability of the Group’s year-on-year financial performance and are recognized within Other unusual expenses.

When an impairment loss for assets, other than Goodwill no longer exists or has decreased, the carrying amount of the asset or CGU is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount, but not in excess of the carrying amount that would have been recorded had no impairment loss been recognized. The reversal of an impairment loss is recognized in the Consolidated income statement.             

Financial instruments  

Presentation

Financial instruments held by the Group are presented in the Consolidated financial statements as described in the following paragraphs.

Investments and other non-current financial assets comprise investments in unconsolidated companies and other non-current financial assets (held-to-maturity securities, non-current loans and receivables and other non-current available-for-sale financial assets).

Current financial assets, as defined in IAS 39 – Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement, include Trade receivables, Receivables from financing activities, Current investments, Current securities and Other financial assets (which include derivative financial instruments stated at fair value), as well as Cash and cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents include cash at banks, units in money market funds and other money market securities, comprising commercial paper and certificates of deposit, that are readily convertible into cash and are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value. Money market funds comprise investments in high quality, short-term, diversified financial instruments which can generally be liquidated on demand. Current securities include short-term or marketable securities which represent temporary investments of available funds and do not satisfy the requirements for being classified as cash equivalents. Current securities include both available-for-sale and held-for-trading securities.

Financial liabilities comprise Debt and Other financial liabilities (which include derivative financial instruments stated at fair value), Trade payables and Other current liabilities.

Measurement

Non-current financial assets other than Investments, as well as current financial assets and financial liabilities, are accounted for in accordance with IAS 39 – Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement. 

Current financial assets and held-to-maturity securities are recognized on the basis of the settlement date and, on initial recognition, are measured at acquisition cost, including transaction costs. Subsequent to initial recognition, available-for-sale and held-for-trading financial assets are measured at fair value. When market prices are not directly available, the fair value of available-for-sale financial assets is measured using appropriate valuation techniques (e.g. discounted cash flow analysis based on market information available at the balance sheet date).

Gains and losses on available-for-sale financial assets are recognized in Other comprehensive income/(loss) until the financial asset is disposed of or is impaired. When the asset is disposed of, the cumulative gains or losses, including those previously recognized in Other comprehensive income/(loss), are reclassified to the Consolidated income statement for the period, within Financial income and expenses. When the asset is impaired, accumulated losses are recognized in the Consolidated income statement. Gains and losses arising from changes in the fair value of held-for- trading financial instruments are included in the Consolidated income statement for the period.

Loans and receivables which are not held by the Group for trading (loans and receivables originating in the ordinary course of business), held-to-maturity securities and equity investments whose fair value cannot be determined reliably, are measured, to the extent that they have a fixed term, at amortized cost, using the effective interest method. When the financial assets do not have a fixed term, they are measured at acquisition cost. Receivables with maturities of over one year which bear no interest or an interest rate significantly lower than market rates are discounted using market rates. Assessments are made regularly as to whether there is any objective evidence that a financial asset or group of assets may be impaired. If any such evidence exists, any impairment loss is included in the Consolidated income statement for the period.

Except for derivative instruments, financial liabilities are measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method.

Financial assets and liabilities hedged against changes in fair value (fair value hedges) are measured in accordance with hedge accounting principles: gains and losses arising from remeasurement at fair value, due to changes in the respective hedged risk, are recognized in the Consolidated income statement and are offset by the effective portion of the loss or gain arising from remeasurement at fair value of the hedging instrument.

Derivative financial instruments

Derivative financial instruments are used for economic hedging purposes, in order to reduce currency, interest rate and market price risks (primarily related to commodities and securities). In accordance with IAS 39 - Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement, derivative financial instruments qualify for hedge accounting only when there is formal designation and documentation of the hedging relationship at inception of the hedge, the hedge is expected to be highly effective, its effectiveness can be reliably measured and it is highly effective throughout the financial reporting periods for which it is designated.

All derivative financial instruments are measured at fair value. 

When derivative financial instruments qualify for hedge accounting, the following accounting treatments apply:

  • Fair value hedges – Where a derivative financial instrument is designated as a hedge of the exposure to changes in fair value of a recognized asset or liability that is attributable to a particular risk and could affect the Consolidated income statement, the gain or loss from remeasuring the hedging instrument at fair value is recognized in the Consolidated income statement. The gain or loss on the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk adjusts the carrying amount of the hedged item and is recognized in the Consolidated income statement. 
  • Cash flow hedges – Where a derivative financial instrument is designated as a hedge of the exposure to variability in future cash flows of a recognized asset or liability or a highly probable forecasted transaction and could affect the Consolidated income statement, the effective portion of any gain or loss on the derivative financial instrument is recognized directly in Other comprehensive income/(loss). The cumulative gain or loss is reclassified from Other comprehensive income/(loss) to the Consolidated income statement at the same time as the economic effect arising from the hedged item affects the Consolidated income statement. The gain or loss associated with a hedge or part of a hedge that has become ineffective is recognized in the Consolidated income statement immediately. When a hedging instrument or hedge relationship is terminated but the hedged transaction is still expected to occur, the cumulative gain or loss realized to the point of termination remains in Other comprehensive income/(loss) and is recognized in the Consolidated income statement at the same time as the underlying transaction occurs. If the hedged transaction is no longer probable, the cumulative unrealized gain or loss held in Other comprehensive income/(loss) is recognized in the Consolidated income statement immediately.
  • Hedges of a net investment – If a derivative financial instrument is designated as a hedging instrument for a net investment in a foreign operation, the effective portion of the gain or loss on the derivative financial instrument is recognized in Other comprehensive income/(loss). The cumulative gain or loss is reclassified from Other comprehensive income/(loss) to the Consolidated income statement upon disposal of the foreign operation.

If hedge accounting cannot be applied, the gains or losses from the fair value measurement of derivative financial instruments are recognized immediately in the Consolidated income statement.

Transfers of financial assets

The Group de-recognizes financial assets when the contractual rights to the cash flows arising from the asset are no longer held or if it transfers the financial asset and transfers substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset. On derecognition of financial assets, the difference between the carrying amount of the asset and the consideration received or receivable for the transfer of the asset is recognized in the Consolidated income statement.

The Group transfers certain of its financial, trade and tax receivables, mainly through factoring transactions. Factoring transactions may be either with recourse or without recourse. Certain transfers include deferred payment clauses (for example, when the payment by the factor of a minor part of the purchase price is dependent on the total amount collected from the receivables) requiring first loss cover, meaning that the transferor takes priority participation in the losses, or requires a significant exposure to the cash flows arising from the transferred receivables to be retained. These types of transactions do not meet the requirements of IAS 39 – Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement for the derecognition of the assets since the risks and rewards connected with collection are not transferred, and accordingly the Group continues to recognize the receivables transferred by this means on the Consolidated balance sheet and recognizes a financial liability of the same amount under Asset-backed financing. The gains and losses arising from the transfer of these receivables are only recognized when they are de-recognized.         

Inventories

Inventories of raw materials, semi-finished products and finished goods are stated at the lower of cost and net realizable value, cost being determined on a first in-first-out (FIFO) basis. The measurement of Inventories includes the direct costs of materials, labor and indirect costs (variable and fixed). A provision is made for obsolete and slow-moving raw materials, finished goods, spare parts and other supplies based on their expected future use and realizable value. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs for sale and distribution. 

The measurement of production systems construction contracts is based on the stage of completion determined as the proportion of cost incurred at the balance sheet date over the estimated total contract cost. These items are presented net of progress billings received from customers. Any losses on such contracts are fully recorded in the Consolidated income statement when they are known.

Employee benefits

Defined contribution plans

Costs arising from defined contribution plans are expensed as incurred.  

Defined benefit plans

The Group’s net obligations are determined separately for each plan by estimating the present value of future benefits that employees have earned in the current and prior periods, and deducting the fair value of any plan assets. The present value of the defined benefit obligation is measured using actuarial techniques and actuarial assumptions that are unbiased and mutually compatible and attributes benefits to periods in which the obligation to provide post-employment benefits arise by using the Projected Unit Credit Method. Plan assets are recognized and measured at fair value.

When the net obligation is a potential asset, the recognized amount is limited to the present value of any economic benefits available in the form of future refunds or reductions in future contributions to the plan (asset ceiling).

The components of the defined benefit cost are recognized as follows:

  • the service costs are recognized in the Consolidated income statement by function and presented in the relevant line items (Cost of sales, Selling, general and administrative costs, Research and development costs, etc.);
  • the net interest on the defined benefit liability or asset is recognized in the Consolidated income statement as Financial income (expenses), and is determined by multiplying the net liability/(asset) by the discount rate used to discount obligations taking into account the effect of contributions and benefit payments made during the year; and 
  • the remeasurement components of the net obligations, which comprise actuarial gains and losses, the return on plan assets (excluding interest income recognized in the Consolidated income statement) and any change in the effect of the asset ceiling are recognized immediately in Other comprehensive income/(loss). These remeasurement components are not reclassified in the Consolidated income statement in a subsequent period.

Past service costs arising from plan amendments and curtailments are recognized immediately in the Consolidated income statement within Other unusual income /(expenses). Gains and losses on the settlement of a plan are recognized in the Consolidated income statement within Other unusual income/(expenses) when the settlement occurs.

Other long term employee benefits

The Group’s obligations represent the present value of future benefits that employees have earned in return for their service during the current and prior periods. Remeasurement components on other long term employee benefits are recognized in the Consolidated income statement in the period in which they arise.  

Termination benefits

Termination benefits are expensed at the earlier of when the Group can no longer withdraw the offer of those benefits and when the Group recognizes costs for a restructuring.

Share-based compensation

Share-based compensation expenses are measured at the fair value of the goods or services received. If this fair value cannot be reliably estimated, their value is measured indirectly by reference to the fair value of the equity instruments granted. Compensation expense for equity-classified awards is measured at the grant date based on the fair value of the award. For those awards with post-vesting contingencies, an adjustment is applied to the fair value of the award to account for the probability of meeting the contingencies. Liability-classified awards are remeasured to fair value at each balance sheet date until the award is settled. 

Share-based compensation expenses are recognized over the employee service period with an offsetting increase to equity or other liabilities depending on the nature of the award. If awards contain certain performance conditions in order to vest, the Group recognizes the cost of the award when achievement of the performance condition is probable. Share-based compensation expenses related to plans with graded vesting are generally recognized using the graded vesting method. Share-based compensation expenses are recognized in Selling, general and administrative costs in the Consolidated income statement.  

Provisions

Provisions are recognized when the Group has a present obligation, legal or constructive, as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation can be made. Changes in estimates of provisions are reflected in the Consolidated income statement in the period in which the change occurs.

Revenue recognition

Revenue from sale of vehicles and service parts is recognized if it is probable that the economic benefits associated with a transaction will flow to the Group and the revenue can be reliably measured. Revenue is recognized when the risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to the customer, the sales price is agreed or determinable and collectability is reasonably assured. For vehicles, this generally corresponds to the date when the vehicles are made available to dealers, or when the vehicle is released to the carrier responsible for transporting vehicles to dealers.

Revenues are recognized net of discounts, including but not limited to, sales incentives and customer bonuses.

The estimated costs of sales incentive programs include incentives offered to dealers and retail customers, and granting of retail financing at a significant discount to market interest rates. These costs are recognized at the time of the sale of the vehicle. 

New vehicle sales with a buy-back commitment, or through the Guarantee Depreciation Program (“GDP”) under which the Group guarantees the residual value or otherwise assumes responsibility for the minimum resale value of the vehicle, are not recognized at the time of delivery but are accounted for similar to an operating lease. Rental income is recognized over the contractual term of the lease on a straight-line basis. At the end of the lease term, the Group recognizes revenue for the portion of the vehicle sales price which had not been previously recognized as rental income and recognizes the remainder of the cost of the vehicle in Cost of sales.

Revenues from services contracts, separately-priced extended warranty and from construction contracts are recognized as revenues over the contract period in proportion to the costs expected to be incurred based on historical information. A loss on these contracts is recognized if the sum of the expected costs for services under the contract exceeds unearned revenue. 

Revenues also include lease rentals recognized over the contractual term of the lease on a straight-line basis as well as interest income from financial services companies.

Cost of sales

Cost of sales comprises expenses incurred in the manufacturing and distribution of vehicles and parts, of which, cost of materials and components are the most significant portion. The remaining costs principally include labor costs, consisting of direct and indirect wages, as well as depreciation, amortization and transportation costs.

Cost of sales also includes warranty and product-related costs, estimated at the time of sale to dealer networks or to the end customer. Depending on the specific nature of the recall, including the significance and magnitude, certain warranty costs incurred are reported as Other unusual expenses, as the Group believes that this separate identification allows the users of the Consolidated financial statements to better analyze the comparative year-on-year financial performance of the Group. Expenses which are directly attributable to the financial services companies, including the interest expenses related to their financing as a whole and provisions for risks and write-downs of assets, are reported in Cost of sales.

Government Grants

Government grants are recognized in the financial statements when there is reasonable assurance of the Group’s compliance with the conditions for receiving such grants and that the grants will be received. Government grants are recognized as income over the periods necessary to match them with the related costs which they are intended to offset.

The benefit of a government loan at a below-market rate of interest is treated for accounting purposes as a government grant. The benefit of the below-market rate of interest is measured as the difference between the initial carrying amount of the loan (fair value plus transaction costs) and the proceeds received, and it is accounted for in accordance with the policies used for the recognition of government grants.  

Taxes

Income taxes include all taxes based on the taxable profits of the Group. Current and deferred taxes are recognized as income or expense and are included in the Consolidated income statement for the period, except tax arising from (i) a transaction or event which is recognized, in the same or a different period, either in Other comprehensive income/ (loss) or directly in Equity, or (ii) a business combination.

Deferred taxes are accounted for under the full liability method. Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for all taxable temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities and their tax base, except to the extent that the deferred tax liabilities arise from the initial recognition of goodwill or the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction which is not a business combination and at the time of the transaction, affects neither accounting profit nor taxable profit. Deferred tax assets are recognized for all deductible temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences can be utilized, unless the deferred tax assets arise from the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and at the time of the transaction, affects neither accounting profit nor taxable profit.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the substantively enacted tax rates in the respective jurisdictions in which the Group operates that are expected to apply to the period when the asset is realized or liability is settled.

The Group recognizes deferred tax liabilities associated with the existence of a subsidiary’s undistributed profits, except when it is able to control the timing of the reversal of the temporary difference, and it is probable that this temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future. The Group recognizes deferred tax assets associated with the deductible temporary differences on investments in subsidiaries only to the extent that it is probable that the temporary differences will reverse in the foreseeable future and taxable profit will be available against which the temporary difference can be utilized.

Deferred tax assets relating to the carry-forward of unused tax losses and tax credits, as well as those arising from deductible temporary differences, are recognized to the extent that it is probable that future profits will be available against which they can be utilized. The Group reassesses unrecognized deferred tax assets at the end of each year and recognizes a previously unrecognized deferred tax asset to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profit will allow the deferred tax asset to be recovered.

Current income taxes and deferred taxes are offset when they relate to the same taxation authority and there is a legally enforceable right of offset.

Other taxes not based on income, such as property taxes and capital taxes, are included in Other income/(expenses).