Use of estimates

The Consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with IFRS which require the use of estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the carrying amount of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities and the amounts of income and expenses recognized. The estimates and associated assumptions are based on elements that are known when the financial statements are prepared, on historical experience and on any other factors that are considered to be relevant.

The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed periodically and continuously by the Group. If the items subject to estimates do not perform as assumed, then the actual results could differ from the estimates, which would require adjustment accordingly. The effects of any changes in estimate are recognized in the Consolidated income statement in the period in which the adjustment is made, or in future periods.

The items requiring estimates for which there is a risk that a material difference may arise in respect of the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the future are discussed below.

Pension plans

The Group sponsors both non-contributory and contributory defined benefit pension plans primarily in the U.S. and Canada. The majority of the plans are funded plans. The non-contributory pension plans cover certain hourly and salaried employees. Benefits are based on a fixed rate for each year of service. Additionally, contributory benefits are provided to certain salaried employees under the salaried employees’ retirement plans. These plans provide benefits based on the employee’s cumulative contributions, years of service during which the employee contributions were made and the employee’s average salary during the five consecutive years in which the employee’s salary was highest in the 15 years preceding retirement or the freeze of such plans, as applicable.

The Group’s defined benefit pension plans are accounted for on an actuarial basis, which requires the use of estimates and assumptions to determine the net liability or net asset. The Group estimates the present value of the projected future payments to all participants taking into consideration parameters of a financial nature such as discount rates, the rates of salary increases and the likelihood of potential future events estimated by using demographic assumptions such as mortality, dismissal and retirement rates. These assumptions may have an effect on the amount and timing of future contributions.

In 2013, the Group amended the U.S. and Canadian salaried defined benefit pension plans. The U.S. plans were amended in order to comply with Internal Revenue Service regulations, to cease the accrual of future benefits effective December 31, 2013, and to enhance the retirement factors. The Canada amendment ceased the accrual of future benefits effective December 31, 2014, enhanced the retirement factors and continued to consider future salary increases for the affected employees. The plan amendments resulted in the remeasurement of the plans and a corresponding curtailment gain. As a result, the Group recognized a €509 million net reduction to its pension obligation, a €7 million reduction to defined benefit plan assets, and a corresponding €502 million increase in Other comprehensive income/(loss) for the year ended December 31, 2013. There were no significant plan amendments or curtailments to the Group’s pension plans for the year ended December 31, 2014.     

Plan obligations and costs are based on existing retirement plan provisions. Assumptions regarding any potential future changes to benefit provisions beyond those to which the Group is presently committed are not made. The assumptions used in developing the required estimates include the following key factors: 

  • Discount rates. The Group selects discount rates on the basis of the rate of return on high-quality (AA-rated) fixed income investments for which the timing and amounts of payments match the timing and amounts of the projected pension payments.
  • Salary growth. The salary growth assumption reflects the Group’s long-term actual experience, outlook and assumed inflation. 
  • Inflation. The inflation assumption is based on an evaluation of external market indicators.
  • Expected contributions. The expected amount and timing of contributions is based on an assessment of minimum funding requirements. From time to time contributions are made beyond those that are legally required.
  • Retirement rates. Retirement rates are developed to reflect actual and projected plan experience.
  • Mortality rates. Mortality rates are developed using our plan-specific populations, recent mortality information published by recognized experts in this field and other data where appropriate to reflect actual and projected plan experience.
  • Plan assets measured at net asset value. Plan assets are recognized and measured at fair value in accordance with IFRS 13 - Fair Value Measurement. Plan assets for which the fair value is represented by the net asset value (“NAV”) since there are no active markets for these assets amounted to €2,750 million and €2,780 million at December 31, 2014 and at 2013, respectively. These investments include private equity, real estate and hedge fund investments.

In 2014, following the release of new standards by the Canadian Institute of Actuaries, mortality assumptions used for our Canadian benefit plan valuations were updated to reflect recent trends in the industry and the revised outlook for future generational mortality improvements. The change increased our Canadian pension obligations by approximately €41 million.

Additionally, retirement rate assumptions used for our U.S. benefit plan valuations were updated to reflect an ongoing trend towards delayed retirement for FCA US employees. The change decreased our U.S. pension obligations by approximately €261 million.

Significant differences in actual experience or significant changes in assumptions may affect the pension obligations and pension expense. The effects of actual results differing from assumptions and of amended assumptions are included in Other comprehensive income/(loss). The weighted average discount rate used to determine the benefit obligation for the defined benefit obligation for the defined benefit plan was 4.03 percent at December 31, 2014 (4.69 percent at December 31, 2013).

At December 31, 2014 the effect of the indicated decrease or increase in selected factors, holding all other assumptions constant, is shown below:



Effect on pension defined benefitobligation
(€ million)
10 basis point decrease in discount rate 317
10 basis point increase in discount rate (312)
   

At December 31, 2014, the net liabilities and net assets for pension benefits amounted to €5,166 million and to €104 million, respectively (€4,253 million and €95 million, respectively at December 31, 2013). Refer to Note 25 for a detailed discussion of the Group’s pension plans.

Other post-employment benefits

The Group provides health care, legal, severance indemnity and life insurance benefits to certain hourly and salaried employees. Upon retirement, these employees may become eligible for continuation of certain benefits. Benefits and eligibility rules may be modified periodically. 

Health care, life insurance plans and other employment benefits are accounted for on an actuarial basis, which requires the selection of various assumptions. The estimation of the Group’s obligations, costs and liabilities associated with these plans requires the use of estimates of the present value of the projected future payments to all participants, taking into consideration parameters of a financial nature such as discount rate, the rates of salary increases and the likelihood of potential future events estimated by using demographic assumptions such as mortality, dismissal and retirement rates.

Plan obligations and costs are based on existing plan provisions. Assumptions regarding any potential future changes to benefit provisions beyond those to which the Group is presently committed are not made.

The assumptions used in developing the required estimates include the following key factors: 

  • Discount rates. The Group selects discount rates on the basis of the rate of return on high-quality (AA-rated) fixed income investments for which the timing and amounts of payments match the timing and amounts of the projected benefit payments.
  • Health care cost trends. The Group’s health care cost trend assumptions are developed based on historical cost data, the near-term outlook, and an assessment of likely long-term trends.
  • Salary growth. The salary growth assumptions reflect the Group’s long-term actual experience, outlook and assumed inflation.
  • Retirement and employee leaving rates. Retirement and employee leaving rates are developed to reflect actual and projected plan experience, as well as legal requirements for retirement in respective countries.
  • Mortality rates. Mortality rates are developed using our plan-specific populations, recent mortality information published by recognized experts in this field and other data where appropriate to reflect actual and projected plan experience.

Additionally, retirement rate assumptions used for our U.S. benefit plan valuations were updated to reflect an ongoing trend towards delayed retirement for FCA US employees. The change decreased our other post-employment benefit obligations by approximately €40 million. 

At December 31, 2014 the effect of the indicated decreases or increases in the key factors affecting the health care, life insurance plans and severance indemnity in Italy (trattamento di fine rapporto or “TFR”), holding all other assumptions constant, is shown below:

Effect on health care and life insurance defined benefit obligationEffect on the TFRobligation
(€ million)
10 basis point / (100 basis point for TFR) decrease in discount rate 28 55
10 basis point / (100 basis point for TFR), increase in discount rate (28) (49)
100 basis point decrease in health care cost trend rate (43)
100 basis point increase in health care cost trend rate 50
  

Recoverability of non-current assets with definite useful lives

Non-current assets with definite useful lives include property, plant and equipment, intangible assets and assets held for sale. Intangible assets with definite useful lives mainly consist of capitalized development costs related to the EMEA and NAFTA segments.

The Group periodically reviews the carrying amount of non-current assets with definite useful lives when events and circumstances indicate that an asset may be impaired. Impairment tests are performed by comparing the carrying amount and the recoverable amount of the CGU. The recoverable amount is the higher of the CGU’s fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use. In assessing the value in use, the pre-tax estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the CGU. 

Due to impairment indicators existing in 2014 primarily related to losses incurred in EMEA due to weak demand for vehicles and strong competition, impairment tests relating to the recoverability of CGUs in EMEA were performed. The tests compared the carrying amount of the assets allocated to the CGUs (comprising property, plant and equipment and capitalized development costs) to their value in use using pre-tax estimated future cash flows discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate. The test confirmed that the value in use of the CGUs in EMEA was greater than the carrying value at December 31, 2014 and as a result, there was no impairment loss recognized in 2014.

In addition, the recoverable amount of the EMEA segment as a whole was assessed. The value in use of the EMEA segment was determined using the following assumptions:

  • the reference scenario was based on the 2014-2018 strategic business plan presented in May 2014 and the consistent projections for 2019;
  • the expected future cash flows, represented by the projected EBIT before Result from investments, Gains on the disposal of investments, Restructuring costs, Other unusual income/(expenses), Depreciation and Amortization and reduced by expected capital expenditure, include a normalized future result beyond the time period explicitly considered used to estimate the Terminal Value. This normalized future result was assumed substantially in line with 2017-2019 amounts. The long-term growth rate was set at zero;
  • the expected future cash flows were discounted using a pre-tax Weighted Average Cost of Capital (“WACC”) of 10.3 percent. This WACC reflects the current market assessment of the time value of money for the period being considered and the risks specific to the EMEA region. The WACC was calculated by referring to the yield curve of 10-year European government bonds, to FCA’s cost of debt, and other factors. 

Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis was performed by simulating two different scenarios:

  1. WACC was increased by 1.0 percent for 2018, 2.0 percent for 2019 and 3.0 percent for Terminal Value;
  2. Cash-flows were reduced by estimating the impact of a 1.7 percent decrease in the European car market demand for 2015, a 7.5 percent decrease for 2016 and a 10.0 percent decrease for 2017-2019 as compared to the base assumptions.

In all scenarios the recoverable amount was higher than the carrying amount. 

The estimates and assumptions described above reflect the Group’s current available knowledge as to the expected future development of the businesses and are based on an assessment of the future development of the markets and the automotive industry, which remain subject to a high degree of uncertainty due to the continuation of the economic difficulties in most countries of the Eurozone and its effects on the industry. More specifically, considering the uncertainty, a future worsening in the economic environment in the Eurozone, particularly in Italy, that is not reflected in these Group assumptions, could result in actual performance that differs from the original estimates, and might therefore require adjustments to the carrying amounts of certain non-current assets in future periods.

In 2013, as a result of the new product strategy and decline in the demand for vehicles in EMEA, the Group performed impairment tests related to the recoverability of the CGUs in EMEA and the EMEA segment as a whole using pre-tax estimated future cash flows discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate of 12.2 percent and the same methodology for the recoverable amount as described above. For the year ended December 31, 2013, total impairments of approximately €116 million relating to EMEA were recognized as a result of testing the CGUs in EMEA (of which €61 million related to development costs and €55 million related to Property, plant and equipment).             

As a result of new product strategies, the streamlining of architectures and related production platforms associated with the Group’s refocused product strategies, the operations to which specific capitalized development costs belonged was redesigned. For example, certain models were switched to new platforms considered technologically more appropriate. As no future economic benefits were expected from these specific capitalized development costs, they were written off in accordance with IAS 38 - Intangible Assets. For the year ended December 31, 2014, specific capitalized development costs of €47 million within the EMEA segment and €28 million of development costs within the NAFTA segment were written off and recorded within Research and development costs in the Consolidated income statement. In addition, in 2014, the Group recorded €25 million of impairment losses primarily related to the EMEA segment for certain powertrains that were abandoned. For the year ended December 31, 2013, specific capitalized development costs of €65 million within the Maserati segment, €90 million within the EMEA segment and €32 million of development costs within the LATAM segment were written off. 

The following table sets forth all impairment charges recognized for non-current assets with definite useful lives during the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012.

Impairments to Property, plant and equipment:

   

NoteTwelve Months Ended December 31,
201420132012
(€ million)
EMEA 25 55 40
Components 2 31 8
LATAM 1
Other 6 1
(15) 33 86 50
Recorded in the Consolidated income statement within:
Cost of sales 33 50
Other unusual expenses 86
33 86 50

Impairments to Other intangible assets:


Note
Twelve Months Ended December 31,
201420132012
(€ million)
Development costs
EMEA 47 151 33
NAFTA 28
Components 3 2 21
Maserati 65
LATAM 32 2
APAC 4 1
82 250 57
Other intangible assets 1
(14) 82 250 58
Recorded in the Consolidated income statement within:
Cost of sales 1
Research and development costs 82 24 57
Other unusual expenses 226
82 250 58
  

Recoverability of Goodwill and Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives

In accordance with IAS 36 – Impairment of Assets, Goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are not amortized and are tested for impairment annually or more frequently if facts or circumstances indicate that the asset may be impaired.

Goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are allocated to operating segments or to CGUs within the operating segments, which represent the lowest level within the Group at which goodwill is monitored for internal management purposes in accordance with IAS 36. The impairment test is performed by comparing the carrying amount (which mainly comprises property, plant and equipment, goodwill, brands and capitalized development costs) and the recoverable amount of each CGU or group of CGUs to which Goodwill has been allocated. The recoverable amount of a CGU is the higher of its fair value less costs to sell and its value in use.

Goodwill and Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives at December 31, 2014 includes €10,185 million of Goodwill (€8,967 million at December 31, 2013) and €2,953 million of Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives (€2,600 million at December 31, 2013) resulting from the acquisition of interests in FCA US. Goodwill also includes €786 million from the acquisition of interests in Ferrari (€786 million at December 31, 2013). The Group did not recognize any impairment charges for Goodwill and Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives during the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012.

For a discussion on impairment testing of Goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite useful lives, see Note 13.

Recoverability of deferred tax assets

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reduced to the extent that it is not probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow the benefit of part or all of the deferred tax assets to be utilized.

At December 31, 2014, the Group had deferred tax assets on deductible temporary differences of €8,662 million (€6,183 million at December 31, 2013), of which €480 million was not recognized (€435 million at December 31, 2013). At the same date the Group had also theoretical tax benefits on losses carried forward of €4,696 million (€3,810 million at December 31, 2013), of which €2,934 million was unrecognized (€2,891 million at December 31, 2013).

At December 31, 2013, in view of the results achieved by FCA US, of the continuous improvement of its product mix, its trends in international sales and its implementation of new vehicles, together with the consolidation of the alliance between FCA and FCA US, following FCA US’s acquisition of the remaining shareholding at the beginning of 2014, the Group recorded previously unrecognized deferred tax assets for a total of €1,734 million, of which €1,500 million was recognized in Income taxes and €234 million in Other comprehensive income/(loss).

The recoverability of deferred tax assets is dependent on the Group’s ability to generate sufficient future taxable income in the period in which it is assumed that the deductible temporary differences reverse and tax losses carried forward can be utilized. In making this assessment, the Group considers future taxable income arising on the most recent budgets and plans, prepared by using the same criteria described for testing the impairment of assets and goodwill. Moreover, the Group estimates the impact of the reversal of taxable temporary differences on earnings and it also considers the period over which these assets could be recovered.

These estimates and assumptions are subject to a high degree of uncertainty especially as it relates to future performance in the Eurozone, particularly in Italy. Therefore changes in current estimates due to unanticipated events could have a significant impact on the Group’s Consolidated financial statements.

Sales incentives

The Group records the estimated cost of sales incentive programs offered to dealers and consumers as a reduction to revenue at the time of sale of the vehicle to the dealer. This estimated cost represents the incentive programs offered to dealers and consumers, as well as the expected modifications to these programs in order to facilitate sales of the dealer inventory. Subsequent adjustments to sales incentive programs related to vehicles previously sold to dealers are recognized as an adjustment to net revenues in the period the adjustment is determinable.             

The Group uses price discounts to adjust vehicle pricing in response to a number of market and product factors, including pricing actions and incentives offered by competitors, economic conditions, the amount of excess industry production capacity, the intensity of market competition, consumer demand for the product and the desire to support promotional campaigns. The Group may offer a variety of sales incentive programs at any given point in time, including cash offers to dealers and consumers and subvention programs offered to customers, or lease subsidies, which reduce the retail customer’s monthly lease payment or cash due at the inception of the financing arrangement, or both. Sales incentive programs are generally brand, model and region specific for a defined period of time.

Multiple factors are used in estimating the future incentive expense by vehicle line including the current incentive programs in the market, planned promotional programs and the normal incentive escalation incurred as the model year ages. The estimated incentive rates are reviewed monthly and changes to the planned rates are adjusted accordingly, thus impacting revenues. As there are a multitude of inputs affecting the calculation of the estimate for sales incentives, an increase or decrease of any of these variables could have a significant effect on revenues.

Product warranties and liabilities

The Group establishes reserves for product warranties at the time the sale is recognized. The Group issues various types of product warranties under which the performance of products delivered is generally guaranteed for a certain period or term. The reserve for product warranties includes the expected costs of warranty obligations imposed by law or contract, as well as the expected costs for policy coverage, recall actions and buyback commitments. The estimated future costs of these actions are principally based on assumptions regarding the lifetime warranty costs of each vehicle line and each model year of that vehicle line, as well as historical claims experience for the Group’s vehicles. In addition, the number and magnitude of additional service actions expected to be approved and policies related to additional service actions are taken into consideration. Due to the uncertainty and potential volatility of these estimated factors, changes in the assumptions used could materially affect the results of operations.

The Group periodically initiates voluntary service and recall actions to address various customer satisfaction and safety and emissions issues related to vehicles sold. Included in the reserve is the estimated cost of these service and recall actions. The estimated future costs of these actions are primarily based on historical claims experience for the Group’s vehicles. Estimates of the future costs of these actions are inevitably imprecise due to some uncertainties, including the number of vehicles affected by a service or recall action. It is reasonably possible that the ultimate cost of these service and recall actions may require the Group to make expenditures in excess of (or less than) established reserves over an extended period of time. The estimate of warranty and additional service and recall action obligations is periodically reviewed during the year. Experience has shown that initial data for any given model year can be volatile. The process therefore relies upon long-term historical averages until actual data is available. As actual experience becomes available, it is used to modify the historical averages to ensure that the forecast is within the range of likely outcomes. Resulting accruals are then compared with current spending rates to ensure that the balances are adequate to meet expected future obligations. 

Warranty costs incurred are generally recorded in the Consolidated income statement as Cost of sales. However, depending on the specific nature of the recall, including the significance and magnitude, the Group reports certain of these costs as Other unusual expenses. The Group believes that this separate identification allows the users of the Consolidated financial statements to better analyze the comparative year-on-year financial performance of the Group.

In addition, the Group makes provisions for estimated product liability costs arising from property damage and personal injuries including wrongful death, and potential exemplary or punitive damages alleged to be the result of product defects. By nature, these costs can be infrequent, difficult to predict and have the potential to vary significantly in amount. The valuation of the reserve is actuarially determined on an annual basis based on, among other factors, the number of vehicles sold and product liability claims incurred. Costs associated with these provisions are recorded in the Consolidated income statement and any subsequent adjustments are recorded in the period in which the adjustment is determined.

Other contingent liabilities

The Group records provisions in connection with pending or threatened disputes or legal proceedings when it is considered probable that there will be an outflow of funds and when the amount can be reasonably estimated. If an outflow of funds becomes possible but the amount cannot be estimated, the matter is disclosed in the notes to the Consolidated financial statements. The Group is the subject of legal and tax proceedings covering a wide range of matters in various jurisdictions. Due to the uncertainty inherent in such matters, it is difficult to predict the outflow of funds that could result from such disputes with any certainty. Moreover, the cases and claims against the Group are often derived from complex legal issues which are subject to a differing degrees of uncertainty, including the facts and circumstances of each particular case, the manner in which the applicable law is likely to be interpreted and applied and the jurisdiction and the different laws involved. The Group monitors the status of pending legal procedures and consults with experts on legal and tax matters on a regular basis. As such, the provisions for the Group’s legal proceedings and litigation may vary as a result of future developments in pending matters.

Litigation

Various legal proceedings, claims and governmental investigations are pending against the Group on a wide range of topics, including vehicle safety, emissions and fuel economy, dealer, supplier and other contractual relationships, intellectual property rights, product warranties and environmental matters. Some of these proceedings allege defects in specific component parts or systems (including airbags, seats, seat belts, brakes, ball joints, transmissions, engines and fuel systems) in various vehicle models or allege general design defects relating to vehicle handling and stability, sudden unintended movement or crashworthiness. These proceedings seek recovery for damage to property, personal injuries or wrongful death and in some cases include a claim for exemplary or punitive damages. Adverse decisions in one or more of these proceedings could require the Group to pay substantial damages, or undertake service actions, recall campaigns or other costly actions. 

Litigation is subject to many uncertainties, and the outcome of individual matters is not predictable with assurance. An accrual is established in connection with pending or threatened litigation if a loss is probable and a reliable estimate can be made. Since these accruals represent estimates, it is reasonably possible that the resolution of some of these matters could require the Group to make payments in excess of the amounts accrued. It is also reasonably possible that the resolution of some of the matters for which accruals could not be made may require the Group to make payments in an amount or range of amounts that could not be reasonably estimated.

The term “reasonably possible” is used herein to mean that the chance of a future transaction or event occurring is more than remote but less than probable. Although the final resolution of any such matters could have a material effect on the Group’s operating results for the particular reporting period in which an adjustment of the estimated reserve is recorded, it is believed that any resulting adjustment would not materially affect the Consolidated statement of financial position or Consolidated statement of cash flows.

Environmental Matters

The Group is subject to potential liability under government regulations and various claims and legal actions that are pending or may be asserted against the Group concerning environmental matters. Estimates of future costs of such environmental matters are subject to numerous uncertainties, including the enactment of new laws and regulations, the development and application of new technologies, the identification of new sites for which the Group may have remediation responsibility and the apportionment and collectability of remediation costs among responsible parties. The Group establishes provisions for these environmental matters when a loss is probable and a reliable estimate can be made. It is reasonably possible that the final resolution of some of these matters may require the Group to make expenditures, in excess of established provisions, over an extended period of time and in a range of amounts that cannot be reliably estimated. Although the final resolution of any such matters could have a material effect on the Group’s operating results for the particular reporting period in which an adjustment to the estimated provision is recorded, it is believed that any resulting adjustment would not materially affect the Consolidated statement of financial position or the Consolidated statement of cash flows.

Business combinations

As discussed below in the paragraph – Acquisition of the remaining ownership interest in FCA US, the consolidation of FCA US was accounted for as a business combination achieved in stages using the acquisition method of accounting required under IFRS 3. In accordance with the acquisition method, the Group remeasured its previously held equity interest in FCA US at fair value. The acquired non-controlling interest in FCA US was also recognized at its acquisition date fair value. Additionally, the Group recognized the acquired assets and assumed liabilities at their acquisition date fair values, except for deferred income taxes and certain liabilities associated with employee benefits, which were recorded according to other accounting guidance. These values were based on market participant assumptions, which were based on market information available at the date of obtaining control and which affected the value at which the assets, liabilities, non-controlling interests and goodwill were recognized as well as the amount of income and expense for the period.  

Share-based compensation

The Group accounts for share-based compensation plans in accordance with IFRS 2 - Share-based payments, which requires measuring share-based compensation expense based on fair value. As described in Note 24, Fiat had granted share-based payments for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012 to certain employees and directors. There were no new Fiat share-based payments made for the year ended December 31, 2014. Also as described in Note 24, FCA US had granted share-based payments for the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012.

The fair value of Fiat share-based payments had been measured based on market prices of Fiat shares at the grant date taking into account the terms and conditions upon which the instruments were granted. The fair value of FCA US awards is measured by using a discounted cash flow methodology to estimate the price of the awards at the grant date and subsequently for liability-classified awards at each balance sheet date, until they are settled.

For FCA US awards, since there are no publicly observable market prices for FCA US’s membership interests, the fair value was determined contemporaneously with each measurement using a discounted cash flow methodology. The Group uses this approach, which is based on projected cash flows, to estimate FCA US’s enterprise value. The Group then deducts the fair value of FCA US’s outstanding interest bearing debt at the measurement date from the enterprise value to arrive at the fair value of FCA US’s equity.

The significant assumptions used in the measurement of the fair value of these awards at each measurement date include different assumptions. For example, the assumptions include four years of annual projections that reflect the estimated after-tax cash flows a market participant would expect to generate from FCA US’s operating business, an estimated after-tax weighted average cost of capital and projected worldwide factory shipments.

The assumptions noted above used in the contemporaneous estimation of fair value at each measurement date have not changed significantly during the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012 with the exception of the weighted average cost of capital, which is directly influenced by external market conditions. 

The Group updates the measurement of the fair value of these awards on a regular basis. It is therefore possible that the amount of share-based payments reserve and liabilities for share-based payments may vary as the result of a significant change in the assumptions mentioned above.